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December 2004



In the News: Family Tree DNA Announcements
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Family Tree DNA is pleased to announce milestones achieved, the Y DNA Haplogroup wall chart, a new Group Administrator tool called FTDNATiP, an enhancement for reporting the most distant ancestor, several enhancements to the Group Administrator tools, Ysearch enhancements, and the results of the 1st International Conference on Genetic Genealogy for Family Tree DNA Group Administrators.

The following milestones have been achieved:

Family Tree DNA now has over 26,773 records in our database of Y DNA results. We also have over 1,350 Surname Projects which include over 9,000 surnames.

Family Tree DNA now has available a Y DNA Haplogroup Wall chart. This chart measures 12 x 38 inches, and is in full color. The Y DNA Haplogroup chart contains the most current information available about Y DNA Haplogroups and was prepared by the University of Arizona.

The Y DNA Haplogroup wall chart shows the origin of all known Y DNA Haplogroups and sub-Haplogroups from the beginning of man. This chart will show you exactly where your Haplogroup fits with all the other Haplogroups, and the mutation(s) that occurred to define each Haplogroup and sub-Haplogroup.

The Y DNA Haplogroup chart is called a Phylogenetic Tree by the scientific community.

To order your Y DNA Haplogroup Wall chart, visit your Personal Page, click on Haplogroup, and then click on "Click here to order", right before the orange bar labeled "Your Haplogroup". The Y DNA Haplogroup chart, including doemstic postage, is only $20.00 US.

Family Tree DNA is pleased to announce a new tool for Group Administrators, called FTDNATiP. This exciting new tool does a calculation for two individual to determine the time to their most recent common ancestor. The calculation uses the individual Marker mutation rates. The result is presented in an easy to understand format, showing the probability for each hundred year period.

FTDNATiP is a proprietary algorithm developed by Family Tree DNA in conjunction with our Advisory Board Member, Dr. Bruce Walsh, a leading population geneticist.

The calculation by FTDNATiP utilizes the Y DNA results of two persons, and the individual Marker mutation rates. The individual Marker mutation rates used are a result of the study by the University of Arizona which was announced at the 1st International Conference on Genetic Genealogy, on October 30, 2004. Documented evidence can be input into the calculations, by entering the number of generations known that the common ancestor did "not" occur.

FamilyTreeDNA is the first to provide this powerful tool to the genealogy community.

FTDNATiP has several important benefits. The calculation comparing two individuals will provide probabilities for each 100 year period for the common ancestor. This information will help participants understand when the common ancestor most likely occurred between themselves and a person they match or closely match. In addition, the probabilities can influence or determine if you pursue a match. A third benefit is that FTDNATiP can be used to make the decision as to whether you should pursue a paper trail connection between the ancestors of two people who are a close match.

Currently FTDNATiP is only available to Group Administrators. FTDNATiP will be made available to all customers, and the code is currently being written for that purpose. An announcement will be made in the newsletter when FTDNATiP is available for all customers, and a selection will appear on the "Y-DNA matches" section of your personal page.

Group Administrators can access FTDNATiP from their Member Page on the Group Administrator Page. Click Member, then select one person of the two you wish to compare, and click on Report. Then select the other person for the comparison, and click FTDNATiP on the far right.

For more information about this exciting new tool called FTDNATiP, see the article below titled "Time to the Common Ancestor".


Family Tree DNA has implemented several enhancements.

On your Update Contact Information Page there is a new item, called Most Distant Known Ancestor. The name, birth date, and even location of the most distant ancestor can be entered. The information entered for this item is the user's choice. This information is displayed on the Group Administrators Generate Y DNA Results Page, and as an option, on the web page output from the Web Builder Tool.

On the Generate Y DNA Results Page, the Most Distant Known Ancestor information is displayed in parenthesis, following the participant's name.

For the Web Builder Tool, select Family Project Website Setup from the Group Administrators Page. At the bottom of the setup screen, you will see an option:

Display: Member Last Name? Most Distant Ancestor? None?

The Group Administrator would select one of the above options, to control what information appears on the Surname Project web page.

An enhancement has also been added to the Group Administrator's Generate Y DNA Results Page. On the Generate Y DNA Results Page, a new selection appears, called Download to Excel. This selection will make it easy to copy the results for the Surname Project to Excel.

For Ysearch, FamilyTreeDNA has implemented a new Surname Search, which searches both those tested and all the pedigrees which were submitted in Gedcom files. At www.ysearch.org, click on the tab at the top labeled Search by Last name. Enter a surname, such as Taylor. The results page displays the number of persons tested, and the number of occurrences of the surname in the pedigrees. To view the persons and their pedigree, click the result below the heading Pedigree. Select a Pedigree to view in the Pedigree column. All the persons in the pedigree with the surname you used in the search are shown in red, so they are easy to find.


The 1st International Conference on Genetic Genealogy for Family Tree DNA Group Administrators was held October 30, 2004 in Houston, Texas. The conference was an outstanding success.

At the conference, the results of the Y DNA Mutation Rate Study of Surname Projects was announced. This study was co-sponsored by the Department of Genetics at the University of Arizona and Family Tree DNA. This study is the first study of Y DNA mutation rates analyzed in conjunction with family genealogies.

The conference was an excellent opportunity to hear from experts in the field. Dr. Bruce Walsh, the world-renowned population geneticist from the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Arizona, presented the topic "Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor". Bennett Greenspan, founder of Family Tree DNA, presented "DNA and Genealogy, How it all Began". Matt Kaplan, from the University of Arizona, presented information about the future of SNP testing, and other advances planned, as well as addressing multi-copy marker issues. Taylor Edwards from the University of Arizona presented an overview of Lab Procedures.

Doug Mumma gave a comprehensive presentation on his Mumma Surname Project, which was the first established Surname Project outside of academic institutions. Doug was a pioneer in the application of DNA testing to genealogy. Well-known genealogical author, Megan Smolenyak presented many unique tips for recruiting participants. In addition to her presentation, Megan and Ann Turner autographed their book "Trace Your Roots with DNA : Using Genetic Tests to Explore Your Family Tree" which can be found at the Books section of Family Tree DNA : http://www.familytreeDNA.com/books.html


As a result of the conference, Family Tree DNA received a variety of input from Group Administrators, which will serve as a cornerstone as we develop our plans for the future.



Genetic Genealogy: When to Test
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We have never heard any one say "I wish I had waited to participate". On the contrary, people wish they had tested sooner, and can't imagine family history research without the power of DNA testing. We often hear: "DNA Testing was the best family history purchase I ever made".

DNA testing provides information not available from the paper records. Even if you are not interested in family history research, DNA testing is a tremendous opportunity for self discovery.

The results from a DNA test have two components. DNA testing at FamilyTreeDNA will tell you about your distant origin, and your test result, when compared with the test results of others, will help identify those to whom you are genealogically related.

DNA testing provides an opportunity for fascinating self discovery. Although there were no paper records back at the time your distant ancestors lived, DNA testing will provide information about these ancestors. DNA testing identifies your Haplogroup, which tells you about your distant origin.

The power of DNA testing is in identifying those to whom you are related. There is also a benefit to identifying those to whom you are "not" related in a genealogical time frame. This information can then be used in many different ways. Perhaps you are trying sort out some confusing paper records, because there are two families with the same name in a location. Perhaps you want to confirm the paper records. Or you are interested in finding out if you are related to others with your surname.

DNA testing provides an opportunity to find those to whom you are related, and to discover information about the origin of your distant direct male or female ancestor.

There is no better time to take a DNA test than today. Whether you have been researching your family history for decades, or thinking about doing some family history research, a DNA test will provide you with information that you can "not" discover in the paper records.

DNA testing at Family Tree DNA includes 25 years of storage at no additional cost. This is a tremendous benefit for older relatives. The sample will be on file for your benefit from future scientific advances.

You don't need a science background to understand the results. Selecting a test is as easy as determining whether you want to learn more about your direct female line or the direct male line of your father. For the direct female line, you would select an mtDNA test. There are two mtDNA tests available, mtDNA and mtDNAPlus. If you are interested in utilizing mtDNA to find matches in a genealogical time frame, select mtDNAPlus. If you want to find out your daughter of Eve, or Clan mother, select the mtDNA test. The mtDNAPlus test includes the mtDNA test.

If you are interested in the direct male line of your father, you must be male, or find a male such as your father or brother. There are three Y DNA tests: Y-DNA12, Y-DNA25, Y-DNA37. The numbers indicate the number of markers tested. For example, Y-DNA12 tests 12 markers.

There are two approaches to selecting a Y DNA test. One approach is to select the maximum number of markers you can afford. The other approach is to start with 12 markers, and add on additional markers in the future, perhaps as you find matches, and want to determine if the match still holds with additional markers.

The advantage of ordering 25 or 37 markers initially, is the cost is slightly lower than ordering 12 markers, and later adding on additional markers.

You can order your test as a member of a Surname Project, or as an individual. If there is a Surname Project for your surname, we encourage you to order your test as part of the Surname Project.

To find a Surname Project or others who have tested with your surname, click on the link below. If you put the surname in the search box in the upper right, you will see the search results both by surname tested as well as Surname Projects.

http://www.familytreeDNA.com/surname.asp

If a Surname Project doesn't exist, consider starting one.

If you don't find that any one has with your surname who has tested, why not be the first?

To place an order as an individual:
http://www.familytreeDNA.com/products.html



Understanding Your Results: Time to the Common Ancestor
=======================================================

The new, powerful tool FTDNATiP, announced above, will appear on your Y DNA Matches page.

Once the selection appears on the match page, you will be able to select a match for comparison, and get a FTDNATiP report which shows the result of the calculation comparing two individuals. This report will provide the probabilities for each 100 year period for the common ancestor. The probabilities can influence or determine if you pursue a match. FTDNATiP can also be used to make the decision of whether you should pursue a paper trail connection between the ancestors of the two people who are a close match. FTDNATiP incorporates new mutation rates from the FTDNA/University of Arizona mutation rate study.

For both Group Administrators and individuals, FTDNATiP can provide useful information to assist you in your genealogy research. Below are some example outputs from FTDNATiP. Keep in mind that each report comparing two individuals utilizes in the calculation the individual's results and the specific Marker mutation rates. Therefore, two people with a Genetic Distance of 1 will most likely not have the same report as two other people who have a Genetic Distance of 1. In other words, since each marker has a different mutation rate, identical Genetic Distances will not necessarily yield the same probabilities.

Below are some examples from FTDNATiP. First is an example where two individuals are a 36/37 match:



-------------------Years--------------------
100 200 300 400 500 600
56.46% 87.40% 96.84% 99.26% 99.83% 99.96% Probability of common ancestor


In this example, there is a 56.46% probability that the common ancestor occurred within 100 years, and an 87.40% probability that the common ancestor is within 200 years.

As you can see, this output format is much easier to understand than a graph!

FTDNATiP also allows you to enter the number of generations known where the two people do not have a common ancestor.

The above comparison between the two individuals did not include the any known genealogy information. The genealogy doesn't go back very far for these two individuals, due to a brick wall. It is known that the common ancestor did "not" occur in the last 4 generations, so a genealogically enhanced correction was then entered, and the calculation rerun, producing the following results:



100-200 300 400 500 600 700
69.29% 92.09% 98.13% 99.58% 99.91% 99.98%


You can see how the probabilities changed with the additional information.

The custom calculation comparing two individuals provides probabilities that the common ancestor occurred for each 100 year period. This information can help you decide if you should pursue a paper connection.

In the above example, the common ancestor has a very high probability of occurring in the 1700's or 1800's. Depending on the surviving records for the geographic area, it would definitely be worth while to pursue finding the paper connection.

Consider the following situation: Two participants are a 34/37 match, and their ancestors lived in the same county in the 1800's. Should they be searching for a paper connection in the 1800's, or is it more likely that the common ancestor occurred much earlier?

The results from FTDNATiP are the following:



100 200 300 400 500 600
3.68% 25.94% 56.38% 78.99% 91.23% 96.70%



In this case, it is highly unlikely that the common ancestor occurred in the 1800's. The probabilities show that the common ancestor was in the more distant past. Therefore, it would not be a wise investment of time to pursue the paper connection in the 1800's.

FTDNATiP does a calculation comparing the results of two persons, using the individual Marker mutation rates. A genealogy factor can be input into the calculations, by entering the number of generations known that the common ancestor did not occur.

Below is an example comparing two individuals who are a 34/37 match, and do not have a common ancestor in 16 generations:


400-500 600 700 800 900 1000
60.63% 86.22% 95.58% 98.67% 99.62% 99.90%


The paper connection may never be found for these two individuals, since Parish Registers only started in the 1500's in England. The time prior to Parish Registers is where the highest probability of a common ancestor occurs. Wills and Manorial Records would be the best source to find a common ancestor.

Currently FTDNATiP is only available to Group Administrators. FTDNATiP will be made available to all customers, and the code is currently being written for that purpose. An announcement will be made in the newsletter when FTDNATiP is available for all customers, and a selection will appear on the "Y-DNA matches" section of your personal page.


Understanding Your Results: Matching
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One of the benefits of testing with Family Tree DNA is our Matching function. Once your test result is posted to your Personal Page on our secure server, you will be notified by email of your matches, for both Y DNA and mtDNA. You will continue to be notified of matches by email, as the DNA results of other customers are posted in the future to their Personal Page.

To be notified of matches and to view matches, you must have submitted a Release Form to FamilyTreeDNA.com. The release form comes in your test kit, and is short and simple. The release form authorizes us to show your matches your name and email address. This is the only information that your matches will see, and you see the same information for those who you match.

If you forgot to send in the release form, you can print and mail a copy from our web site:

http://www.familytreeDNA.com/release.html

If you are unsure if you submitted the release form, go to your Personal Page at FamilyTreeDNA.com, and click on the selection Matches. If you do not have a release form on file, a page will appear that tells you that you don't have a release form on file.

When you have a release form on file, you will receive email notice of matches when test results are posted for others to whom you match.

You can also go to your Personal Page at any time, and click on the selection Matches to see who you match.

The second item relating to Matches is whether you belong to a Surname Project, and are set to Public or Private. This selection is only relevant to those who do belong to a Surname Project and took a Y DNA test. For Y DNA, if you belong to a Surname Project, there is a setting called Public/Private, which determines whether the whole database is used to find matches for you, or your matches are members of your Surname Project. The following chart shows how the setting determines the search for matches:

Public: searches the whole Family Tree DNA customer database, of those who submitted a release form and are set to Public
Private: searches the Surname Project, of those who submitted a release form

Most matches with other surnames will not have any value. These matches occur because you are related prior to the adoption of surnames, or as a result of convergence, where results mutate over time and now match or are a close match. If you belong to Haplogroup R1b, you will typically have many matches with other surnames.

The Public/Private setting determines if you see matches outside your Surname Project. The Public/Private setting only applies to members of a Surname Project who have taken a Y DNA test. If you took a Y DNA test, and don't belong to a Surname Project, your setting is Public.

Before spending time pursuing a match looking for a paper connection, it is recommended that both participants who match or are a close match upgrade their test to 37 Markers, to verify that the match is still relevant. If you match at 12 or 25 markers, you can easily upgrade by clicking Order Tests on your Personal Page. A new test kit is "not" required, since your test with Family Tree DNA includes 25 years of storage for your sample.

If you don't have any matches, it is important to validate your test result and your family tree, by having a distant direct descent male participate.

As long as you submitted a release form, you will continue to receive email notice of genetic matches that occur, when test results are posted for other customers. You view these matches by clicking on the Matches selection on your Personal Page. Matches since your last visit will have two asterisks " ** " to denote that these matches are new.

For further information, see the following issues of the newsletter:

Interpreting Results: Why is the Surname relevant?
http://www.familytreeDNA.com/facts_genes.asp?act=show&nk=2.8

Understanding Your Results: Matching Other Surnames
http://www.familytreeDNA.com/facts_genes.asp?act=show&nk=2.11

Y DNA Surname Projects: Public or Private
http://www.familytreeDNA.com/facts_genes.asp?act=show&nk=3.2
http://www.familytreeDNA.com/facts_genes.asp?act=show&nk=2.3
http://www.FamilyTreeDNA.com/facts_genes.asp?act=show&nk=2.1

Haplotypes: Convergence
http://www.familytreeDNA.com/facts_genes.asp?act=show&nk=1.5



Case Studies in Genetic Genealogy
=================================

In each issue of the Newsletter, we present a situation which you may encounter as you utilize Genetic Genealogy testing for your family history research, followed by our recommendation.

Case Study
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In my Surname Project we tested one person from two different Lines who we expected to match, and they don't match. What now?

Recommendation
==============
It is recommended that you validate the result for each Line, by testing a distant member of each family tree. This step is also important for determining the ancestral result for the Line.

In this case study, the Group Administrator went ahead and validated each result by testing a distant member of each Line. The Group Administrator was then quite surprised when the second participant from the first Line matched the result for the second Line, showing that there had been an extra marital event or unknown adoption some where in Line 1.

Based on this discovery, the research for Line 1 should be carefully checked, especially the juncture where the two branches connect. Additional testing may be able to identify exactly where the event occurred that caused the different DNA result.



Spot Light: Allison Surname Project
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The Allison Surname Project was established on February 2002 and has 47 participants. As early as April 2001, Allison males were trying out DNA testing for genealogy, before the Surname Project was officially established. The Surname Project covers the surnames Allison, Ellison, Elliston and variants.

In 2001, the first two participants wanted to find out if there was a connection between their two Allison Lines. One Line, whose progenitor is Joseph Allison, was living in Long Island, NY by 1720 and moved to Orange Co., NY ca 1725. The other Line descended from Lawrence Ellison who was born in Yorkshire, England, and migrated to New England ca 1632 and then to Long Island. Lawrence Ellison's descendants later moved to Orange/Rockland Co., NY in the 1700s and were using the Allison spelling by then.

Several researchers of the Joseph Allison and Lawrence Ellison/Allison lines have searched for documentation to prove or disprove a connection between the two families, but traditional genealogical research has failed to find a paper trail that proves that they were related.

When the results came back from the lab for the first two participants, the results did not match. Although disappointed, the two participants concluded that the two Lines were not related.

Later, additional participants tested who can trace their family tree to the same locations. Some of these participants can connect to either Joseph or Lawrence with paper documentation. The results for these participants matched the prior result for the descendent of Joseph, indicating that Joseph and Lawrence are related. Based on the results of these additional participants, it is believed that some where in the branch of the initial participant with the paper trail to Lawrence, there is an extramarital event.

The common ancestor and/or relationship between Joseph and Lawrence has not yet been identified.

As the Surname Project stands today, the results for the 47 participants show five(5) groups whose results match, and 20 persons who don't match anyone.



Copyright 2004, Family Tree DNA "Facts & Genes"   http://www.familytreeDNA.com/facts_genes.asp

The address to join our Holland family DNA Project is
http://www.familytreedna.com/surname_join.asp?code=T68505. 

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Holland Family History and Family Tree:  Holland Family Resource Center
Diana Holland Faust 
Published  10 June 1996   This page added 19 December 2004   Last updated 17 March 2012